Receptor Signaling and Regulation of Gene Expression in Microbiology

The majority of ovarian cancer patients are treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, but the emergence of resistance to such chemotherapy severely limits its overall effectiveness. The receptor is expressed by insulin-secreting beta-cells, but its cellular function is unknown. We transfected betaTC6-F7 beta-cells with cDNAs encoding either wild-type or mutant kinase-inactive (A/K1018) IRs, and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting generated polyclonal beta-cell lines that overexpressed each receptor type at levels two- to fourfold higher than the parental cells. Beta-cells overexpressing wild-type had a proportional increase in insulin-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity; no change occurred in beta-cells expressing the mutant IR. Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA) and is informally termed gene regulation. Cells transform external stimuli, through the activation of signaling pathways, which in turn activate gene regulatory networks, in gene expression. As more omics data are generated from experiments, eliciting the integrated relationship between the external stimuli, the signaling process in the cell and the subsequent gene expression is a major challenge in systems biology. The complex system of non-linear dynamic protein interactions in signaling pathways and gene networks regulates gene expression.







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